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   Aug 14

Neurosurgery Genes

"The placenta – an institution whose state is critical to the health of both mother and fetus", – says Baker. Despite its great importance, almost nothing is known about where it occurred and how to operate. Kerstin Baker and Knox (graduate student, suggested that this development) started to issue a decision on the evolution of the placenta to determine which genes are active in cells of the body during pregnancy in mice. They found that development of the placenta takes place in 2 stages. In the first phase, which begins from the moment of conception until the middle of pregnancy, the placental cells primarily activate genes that mammals, birds and reptiles alike. It shows that the placenta initially evolved, modifying genes, inherited from the earliest mammals and their direct ancestors. Early mammals appeared 120 million years ago.

In the second stage of placenta cells mammals are switched to a new wave of species-specific genes. According to Baker, the fact that each different set of genes has a specific meaning. "The needs of pregnant orca strongly differ from those of mice therefore, to solve such problems, various "decisions" on hormonal levels, "- she said. For example, the placenta provides an elephant fetus with everything you need 660 days, while the pregnant mouse bears an average of 12 mice for 20 days. Obviously, for different types need different pregnancy placenta. Baker pointed out that these findings are very interesting. According to our data, for example, cloned mice have high chance of dying after a transition occurs with the participation of genetic placenta. "It seems that there are strong regulatory changes," – she said.

What is surprising, despite the fact that this dramatic turn of events occurs in the placenta, the tissue apparently does not change. Understanding the origin and functioning of the placenta can be very useful. Previous studies have assumed that the placenta may be involved in the onset of labor. It was also believed that she was involved in the manifestation of the state of pre-eclampsia, which leads to premature birth. Baker intends to continue to work together with Theo Palmer (Associate Professor of Neurosurgery), Jill Beherano (Associate Professor of Biology Development) and Anna Penn (Associate Professor of Pediatrics). The research team hopes to learn how the placenta is involved in protecting the developing fetal brain. It is important to understand how these processes affect the adult body. The work was funded by the National Institute of Health, the fund March of Dimes and the Stanford Program training of medical scientists. Information provided by Stanford University Medical Center. At copying and using this article link to a site required!

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